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Bridge: Contract and Auction

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Unit the turn of this century Whist was considered the king other socially acceptable card games in both the United States and Great Britain.  Today, while it and its many variants have been almost completely overshadowed by its more complex offshoots, contract and Auction Bridge, it has still kept some of its earlier popularity.


Laws of the American whist congress of the basic games generally played in the United States and Great Britain.

  1. Four players, two against two as partners.
  1. A standard 52-card deck is used.  Two decks of contrasting back designs should be used, one being shuffled while the other is dealt, as in Bridge.
  2. Rank of cards: in play, ace (high), king, queen, jack, ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two.  All suits are of equal rank.  In drawing for partners and deal, ace is low.

The Shuffle, cut and Deal.  Any player may shuffle, the dealer last; the player at the dealer’s right cuts.  The dealer gives one card  at a time, face down, to each player, in clockwise rotation beginning with the player on his left, until he comes to the last card, which is the trump cards.
            The Trump Card.  The dealer must play the last card of the pack face up on the table before him, and every card of its suit becomes a trump.  When it is the dealer’s turn to play to the first trick, he picks up the trump card and it becomes part of his poker hand .
            Object of Play.  To win at least seven tricks out of 13 in play.
            The Play.  The turn to play is from player to player in clockwise rotation.  The player at the dealer’s left makes the first  lead, and may lead any card.  Each player in turn  thereafter must play a card, following suit if able.  If not able to follow suit, a player may play any card.  Four cards so  played (including the card led)  constitute a trick.  A trick containing any trump is won by the player of the highest trump; a trick not containing a trump is won by the player of the highest card of the suit led.  The winner of each trick leads to the next.
         Scoring.  Each odd trick (trick in excess of six) counts 1 point for the side winning it.

The Laws of Whist

  The following rules are condensed from the Laws of the American Whist Congress:
            The Game.  A game consists of 7 points, each trick above six counting 1. The value of the hand is determined by deducting the loser’s score from seven.
Cutting. The dealer must present the deck to his right-hand adversary to be cut; the adversary must take a portion from the top of the deck and place it toward the dealer. At least four cards must be left in each packet. The dealer must reunite the packets by lacing the one not removed in cutting upon the other. If, in cutting or reuniting the separate I packets, a card is exposed, the deck must be reshuffled by the dealer and cut again. If the dealer reshuffles the deck after it has been properly cut, he loses his deal.
Dealing. When the deck has been properly (cut and reunited, the dealer must distribute! the cards, one at a time, to each player in regular rotation starting at his left. The last, which is the trump card, must be turned up before the dealer. At the end of the hand, or when the deal is lost, the deal passes to the player next to the dealer on his left, and so on to each in turn. There must be a new deal by the same dealer (a) if any card except the last is faced in the pack; or (b) if, during the deal or during the play of the hand, the pack is proved incorrect or imperfect. (However, any prior score made with that pack shall stand.) If a card is exposed during the deal, the side not at fault may demand a new deal, provided neither member of that side has touched a card. If a new deal does not take place, the exposed card is not liable to be called.
Anyone dealing out of turn, or with the wrong deck, may be stopped before the trump card is turned. If the trump card is turned, the deal is valid and the deck, if changed, is kept.
Misdealing. It is a misdeal if the dealer:

  1. Omits to have the deck cut, and his adversaries discover the error before the trump card is turned and before looking at any of their all cards games .
  2. Deals a card incorrectly and fails to correct the error before dealing another.
  3. Counts the cards on the table or in  the remainder of the pack.
  4. Having a perfect deck, does not deal to each player the proper number of cards and the error is discovered before all have played the first trick.
  5. Looks at the trump card before the deal is completed.
  6. Places the trump card face downward upon his own or any other player’s cards.

A misdeal loses the deal unless, during the deal, either of the adversaries touches a card, or in any other manner interrupts the dealer.
The Trump Card. The dealer must leave the trump card face up on the table until it is his turn to play to the first trick. If it is left on the table until after the second trick has been turned and quitted (a quitted trick is a trick that has been turned face down), it is liable to be called (taken). After it has been lawfully taken up it must not be named; any player naming it is liable to have his highest or his lowest trump called by either adversary. A player may, however, ask what the trump suit is.
Irregularities in the Hands. At any time after all have played to the first trick (the pack being perfect): If a player is found to have either more or less than his correct number of cards, and if his adversaries have the right number, then the latter, upon the discovery of such surplus or deficiency, may consult and may choose (a) to have a new deal; or (b) to have the hand played out, in which case the surplus or missing cards are not taken into account.
If either of the adversaries also has more or less than his correct number, there must be a new deal. If any online poker player has a surplus card by reason of an omission to play to a trick, his adversaries can exercise the foregoing privilege only after he has played to the trick following the one in which the omission occurred.
Cards Liable to Be Called. The following cards are liable to be called by either adversary:

Every card faced upon the table other than in the regular course of play, but not including a card led out of turn.

Every card thrown with the one led or, played to the current trick. The player must indicate the one led or played.

Every card so held by a player that his partner sees any portion of its face.

All the cards in a hand lowered or shown by a player so that his partner sees more than one card of it.

Every card named by the player holding it.

All cards liable to be called must be placed and left face upward on the table. A player must lead or play them when they are called, providing he can do so without revoking. The call may be repeated at each trick until the card is played. A player cannot be prevented from leading or playing a card liable to be called; if he can get rid of it in the course of play, no penalty remains. If a player leads a card better than any that his adversaries hold of the suit, and then leads one or more, other cards without waiting for his partner to play, the latter may be called upon by either adversary to take the first trick. The other cards games thus improperly played are liable to be called; it makes no difference whether he plays them one after the other or throws them all on the table together. A player having a card liable to be called must not play another until the adversaries have stated whether or not they wish to call the card liable to the penalty. If he plays another card without waiting the decision of the adversaries, this other card also is liable to be called.
Leading Out of Turn. If any player leads out of turn, a suit may be called from him or his partner the first time it is the turn of either of them to lead. The penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the right of the player being penalized.
If a player so called on to lead a suit has none of it, or if all have played to the false lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all have not played to the trick, the cards erroneously played to such false lead are not liable to be called, and must be taken back.
Playing Out of Turn. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand may also play before the second. If the third hand has not played, and the fourth hand plays before the second, the latter may/be called upon by the third hand to play his highest or lowest card of the suit led; or, if he has none, to trump or not to trump the trick.
Abandoned Hands. If all four players throw their cards on the table, face upward, no further play of that hand is permitted. The result of the hand,. as then claimed or admitted, is established; provided that, if a revoke is discovered, the revoke penalty attaches.
Revoking. A revoke may be corrected by the player making it, before the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted, unless (a) either he or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, has led or played to the following trick; or (b) his partner has asked whether or not he has any of the suit renounced. 
If a player corrects his mistake in time to e save a revoke, the card improperly played by him is liable to be called.
The penalty for revoking is the transfer of If at least two tricks, from the revoking side to a their adversaries. It can be enforced for as many revokes as occur during the hand. The revoking side cannot win the game in that hand. If both sides revoke, neither side can win the game in that hand. The revoking play poker player and his partner may require the hand in which the revoke has been made to be  played out, and score all points made by them up to score of.  The revoke can be claimed at any time before the cards have been presented and cut for the following deal, but not thereafter.
Miscellaneous. During the play of a trick, and before the cards have been touched for the purpose of gathering them together, any one may demand that the players draw their Is cards (expose the cards to that trick).
If any player says “I can win the rest,” If “The rest are ours,” “We have the game,” or e words to that effect, his partner’s cards must be laid upon the table, and are liable to be called.
If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or lowest of a suit, or to trump or not to trump a trick, or to lead a suit, and unnecessarily fails to comply, then he is liable to the same penalty as if he had revoked. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender must await the decision of the adversaries. If either demands a penalty to which d they are entitled, such decision is final.

English Whist

This variant is played the same as American Whist, except for the following differences in scoring:

  1. A score for honors is made for the ace, king, queen, and jack of trumps. The side holding three such honors scores 2 points; the side holding all four scores 4. But, a side cannot win game on an honor count alone. It must also win at least one odd trick in that  deal. Tricks are counted before honors; this is important in deciding who has reached game first. After game has been reached, a losing side’s honors are not counted, but the winning one’s are.
  2. Game is 5 points, rather than 7. Rubbers are generally played-two games out of three. If a side reaches game before their opponents have scored anything, it receives 3 rubber points. If a side reaches game before their opponents have won 3 game points, it gets 2 rubber points. If the opponents have won 3 or more game points, the side reaching poker game is given rubber point. For winning rubber, a side scores 2 additional points. The highest winning margin possible after rubber is over is 8, known as a bumper. The lowest winning margin is one. The rubber score of the losers is subtracted from that of the winners to establish the winning margin.
  3. Revokes are handled in one of three following ways:
    1. 3 points are deducted from offending side’s score.
    2. 3 points are deducted from offending side’s score and added to non offender's.
    3. 3 points are added to non offender’s score.

Prussian Whist
This variant is played like American Whist except that, instead of turning up the last card for trump, the player to the dealer’s left cuts a trump from the deck not in use.

Favorite Whist
Favorite Whist is American Whist with this variation: Whenever the suit first cut for trumps reappears as trumps during the rubber, tricks and honors count double. A favorite suit must be cut for afresh at the beginning of each rubber.

Suit-Value Whist

In this variant of American Whist, each trick over six is worth 1 when spades are trumps; 2, when clubs; 3, when diamonds; and 4, when hearts. There is no count for honors, and 10 points is game. The rubber bonus is 10 points. The difference between the score of the winners and that of the losers is the value of the rubber.

Duplicate Whist, Progressive Whist, Progressive Rubber Whist, and Pivot Whist

These are all played the same as in Contract or Auction Bridge (Chapter 7), except that Whist scoring and play is used. Each deal is a unit in Duplicate and Progressive Whist, and a bonus of 2 is added for game on a deal.

Dummy Whist
This poker variants of English Whist, called Mort by the French, is for three players. Before the play begins the players cut, and lowest wins dummy for the first rubber; next to lowest wins dummy for the second; highest wins dummy for the third. It is regarded as compulsory to play three rubbers. After the opening lead, the dummy’s hand is placed face up, arranged in suits, and, thereafter dummy’s partner plays dummy’s cards one by one. Dummy is not allowed to revoke and its position is always between the opponents.

Double Dummy Whist

Double Dummy Whist is played by two players. Lower in the cut deals, dealing to his dummy first. The dealer has the privilege of sitting to the right or to left of the other player. The seat to the right is regarded as preferable, as it permits leading through the concealed hand. This variant is scored as in English Whist.

Humbug Whist

In this variation of Double Dummy, the two players sit opposite each other. Four hands of 13 cards each are dealt, and the last card is faced for the trump. Either or both players, after examining the hands dealt to them, have the privilege of exchanging the hands dealt to them for the hands respectively to their right, facing down the hand they have examined. If the dealer exchanges his, the trump suit remains the same, but he naturally loses the faced trump card. The face-down hands are not used in the play. The nondealer makes the first lead and, except that each trick consists of only two cards, the rules for play are as in American Whist; however, the scoring counts as in English Whist.

Trump Humbug Whist

This variant is played the same way as Humbug Whist, except that no trump is turned. Instead, the dealer names the trump after looking at his hand, but he may not exchange it. His opponent then has the privilege of playing the hand dealt to him, or exchanging it for the hand to his right.

Chinese Whist

In this game for four poker hands, each player is dealt six cards, one at a time, in a face-down row.  Then six more cards are dealt to each player, one at a time, face-down cards.  then one “playing” card is dealt to each player, face down.  The “playing” cards are held in the hands of the players until the dealer names one suit as trump.  The player to the dealer’s left then leads his “playing” card or one of the face-up cards, and the other players in rotation play to it from their  face-up cards.   it is required to follow suit if possible; if not, players may trump or discard.  As soon as a card faced up is played, the concealed card beneath it must be faced up.  The rules of play and scoring are as in American Whist



Pinochle many Variations

Pinochle many Variations
Two-Handed Pinochle
Two-Handed Doubling Redoubling
Auction pinochle
Strategy at Auction
CAD found
Partnership Auction
Auction pinochle without wido Individual play
Partnership Aeroplane Pinochle
Radio Partnership Pinochle

Other Members of the Bezique Family

The Bezique Family
Rubicon bezique
Two-handed sixty-six
Two-handed piquet
Boo-Ray or BOURÉ

The Big Euchre Family

The big euchre family
Strategy of euchre
Auction euchre
Table of scoring points
Spoil five
Double hasenpfeffer
Three-card loo

The Heart Group

Heart Group
Spot Hearts
Black Widow Hearts

The All-Fours Group

All-Fours Group
Shasta Sam
Auction Pitch Joker

Banking Card Games

Banking Card Games
Black Jack, casino Style
Black Jack Strategy
CHEMIN DE PER must play
Baccarat Banque
Faro or farobank
Banker and broker
Red Dogs

Card craps

The Stops Games

Stops Game

Skarney® and How It Is Played

Skarney® and How It Is Played
Alternate Skarney
Skarney Singles
Skarney Gin Doubles

Cheating at Card Games

Cheating at Card Games
Professional Card Cheats
Nullifying the Cut
The Peek
How to Shuffle Cards

Dice and their Many Games

Dice and their Many Games
The Casino Game: Bank Craps
English Hazard
Double Cameroon
Partnership Straight scarney Dice
Scarney Duplicate Jackpots
Scarney Chemin de Fer
Applying All Card Games Poker

Games Requiring Special Equipment

Hasami Shogi
Follow The Arrow

Lottery and Guessing Games

Lottery guessing game
Tossing Game
Race Horse Keno
The match Game

Glossary of Game Terms


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