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Games Requiring  Special Equipment

True, the board games of Chess, checkers and Teeko require  special games board and counters or pieces, but these games have become standard part of the household equipment and there are few homes in North America or Great Britain that don’t have at least one of these three game boards in it.

            The games in this chapter are popular in various parts of the world and are becoming more international as the years go by.  Actually some of these games are very old, others are fairly new.


Backgammon, one of the world’s most ancient games, has been played for thousands of years in all parts of the world.  It was played in Egypt, Greece, and Rome, and probably derives from the even earlier oriental game of Pachisi (Parcheesi), in which the movements of counters on a board are governed by the throw of dice.  It was played throughout the middle Ages in Europe as Tables until Chess became the more popular game in the fifteenth century. In the early seventeenth century improvements in the game gave it a tremendous revival and it swept Europe under various names: Backgammon in England, Gammon in Scotland, Tric-trac in France, Puff in Germany, Tarola Reale in Italy.  Another craze for the game occurred just before World War I, and it is still widely played in the middle East as Tric-trac.  Incidentally, the word Backgammon has been ascribed to the Welsh words back and gammon (little battle), and also to the Saxon Backgammon and gamen (back game).

  1. Two players; three or more sometimes participate in the stakes.
  1. The Board.  A rectangular board is divided  into the two halves by a vertical bar.  One half is called the inner (or home) table; the other the outer table.  (Traditionally the inner table is the one nearest the light.)  The players, designated Black and White, face each other.  Twelve alternately colored triangles, called points, project from each side of the board toward the center.  The players sit on opposite sides of the board.
  2. Pieces.  Each player has 15 checker like pieces (often called men or stones) of contrasting colors, usually black and white.  Their starting positions are shown in the illustrations.  The movement of White’s pieces is from Black’s inner table clockwise to White’s home table.  Black’s pieces travel in the opposite direction.
  3. Dice.  Each player has a dice cup and two dice.
  4. Doubling Cube.  A large die whose faces are numbered: 2,4,8,16,32, 64.


The Backgammon board and the location of the men or

stones at the start of the game

Notation.  Each point is numbered as in the diagram although the number do not appear on the board.  The initials B and W indicate which side of the board  the point is on.  A move lists the point moved from and the point moved to.  Example:   While B12-W6, b1-B3 means: white moves one stone from Black’s 12 point to White’s 6 point, and one stone fro Black’s 1point to Black’s 3 point.  If more than one stone makes the same move, the number of stones being moved is added in parentheses as : B1-B3 (2).
Start of the Game.  Each player throws one die from his cup and the player throwing the highest number has the choice of seat and  color of men.  If both players throw the same number they throw again.  The player throwing the highest number is the winner and plays first by using the numbers on both his own and his opponent’s dice.  Thereafter, the turn of play alternates and each player throws both his own dice.
The Play.  The object of the game is for each player to move his 15 men toward the inner table on his own side of the board, and then bear them off the board.  White moves clockwise, black moves counterclockwise.  The first player to bear all his men off wins the game
The numbers on the two dice, taken separately, show the number of points over which the men may be moved.  When one man has been moved the number of points indicated by one die, the other number may be used either to move the same man further or to move another man.  When a player throws a doublet (both numbers the same) it counts double.  A 6-6, for instance, counts as four  sixes, a total of 24 points, not 12.  Since a doublet consist of four numbers, the player may move as many as four men, or stones.
The player must attempt to use both (or all four)numbers if he can.  If he can use only one number, he must try to use the higher (or as many as can be used of a doublet).  If none of the numbers thrown are usable, the play passes to his opponent.

The moves.  A point is open to a player when it is not occupied by two or more of his opponent’s men.  A player who has two or more men on one point has made that point and his opponent’s men may not land on it.  A man may pass over a closed point in using the total of both numbers on the dice provided each number could be played separately.

A single man on a point is blot.  When a man of the opposite color lands on that point the blot is hit, and the man originally there is taken off and placed on the bar.  A man on the bar may enter again when a number is thrown that will place the man on an unoccupied point of his opponent’s home table.  All men on the bar must be reentered before any other moves may be made.  When a player has two or more men on a point it is said to be blocked, and an opponent’s man may not come to rest on the point although it can move past the blocked point.  If a player blocks six adjacent points and has one or more of his opponent’s men behind it, he has made a prime.  If he blocks all six points of his home table when his opponent still has one or more men on the bar, he is said to have shut-out.

Bearing Off Men.  Once a player has advanced all 15 of his stones or men to his own inner table, he may start bearing off, which consists in removing men from the board.  The first player to bear off all his 15 men wins.  A man may be borne off any point whose number shows on either die.  Example:   If white rolls 4-3, he may remove a stone from W4 and another from W3.  Instead of bearing off he may also use the numbers to move inside his inner table.

When a number rolled is higher than the highest point on which a player has any men, he bears off from the next highest number.  If, after having started to bear off, a man is hit, it goes to the bar and must enter, and come around to the inner table, before the player can continue bearing off.

Scoring.  The first player to bear off all his men wins the game.  If the loser has borne off at least one man, and has no man left in the winner’s inner table, he loses a single game.  If he has not borne off a single man, he loses double (gammon).  If, in addition, he has a man left in his opponent’s inner table or on the bar, he loses triple (backgammon).
Doubling.  Backgammon is played for an agreed base stake which may be increased by doubling during play, and by gammon and backgammon (as above).  An automatic double occurs when equal numbers are thrown on this first roll, and both players roll again (Automatic doubles may be waived by agreement, and, if not, are usually limited by agreement to one or two per game.)

Either player has the right to offer the first voluntary double before casting, and this right alternates thereafter.  The opponent must agree to play at the double stake, or forfeit the game and the stake.  If he accepts the double, the game continues at the increased stake.  The player who offered the double may not immediately double again.  The privilege of making the next double falls to his opponent and if he doubles, the first player either resigns and pays the double stakes or accepts and the game continues with stakes that are four times the original amount.  There is no limit to the number of doubles that may be made but the option of offering doubles are cumulative and in addition to increase from the gammon or Backgammon.
Additional Rules.  The following additional rules will cover most irregularities that may occur:

  1. After the game has started, if it is seen that some of the men have been set up in the wrong position, the game must be started again.
  2. The dice must be thrown from the box onto the player’s right-hand table.  If the dice are thrown out of the right-hand table, or if they are tilted and do not rest flat on the surface, or if either die is touched by either player during the throw or before the player has called the numbers showing, the throw is faulty and must be thrown again.
  3. A player must not throw his dice until his opponent’s play has been completed.
  4. After a player has moved a man and taken his hand from the piece, he cannot change his play.
  5. If a player moves incorrectly, his opponent can demand that the error be corrected provided he does so before he has made his own throw.

Backgammon Opening-Move Strategy.  There are really three distinct styles of playing Backgammon.

  1. The Running Game.  It is usually adopted by a player when he gets several high throws at the outset of the game and everything is subordinated to full speed ahead and no concern about his opponent’s moves.
  2. The Block Game.  The object of this strategy is to block as many points in a row as possible to impede opponent’s progress.  This is purely a defensive game.
  3. The Back Game.  With this type of strategy, a player, instead of trying to rush his men forward, concentrates upon doing everything possible to delay his own forward progress, which he does by endeavoring to have his own men set home and reentered  in his opponent’s inner table, making points, so that later they may hit the opponent’s blots

Actually, there are two kinds of Backgammon players, those who depend entirely on the element of chance to win and those who put their trust in the fascinating factor of skill.  While skill plays a very important part in winning Backgammon, still the element of luck is always present.  Therefore of paramount importance to a winning player is an accurate knowledge of the odds in the various dice throws that arise during play.  for instance, suppose you wanted to calculate your opponent’s chances of a 2 or a 3 compared to the probability of his throwing a 6 or a 7.  This can be figured out as follows:   The total number of different combinations that can be made with two dice is 36.  A single 2 can be made with two dice in 12 different ways.  It can be made as a double, and it can be made with any of the other five, numbers on the dice.  Examples: 1-1, 2-6, 6-2, 2-5, 5-2, 2-4, 4-2, 2-3, 3-2, 2-2, 2-1, and 1-2.  Hence the chances of throwing a 2 in one throw of the dice is 23 to 12, or less than 2 to 1 against.  It is obvious of course that a double can be thrown only one way, but there are two ways to throw any number, such as 4-2, or 2-4.

The player with a special knowledge of two-dice mathematics need only apply it with intelligence to have a decisive advantage over his opponent whose plays are contrary to the mathematical chances.  It takes a knowledgeable player to tell whether or not he is facing a worthy opponent on the first few throws of the dice.  A player who fails to play his   opening moves correctly cannot be expected to play a good game.  To aid such a player, the following examples depict all the first throws with two dice and the best way to play each to gain the best advantage.  The various parts of the board and the different points mentioned that follow may be readily located by looking at the diagram.  It also shows the setup for the start of the game.
The best doubles plays to make at start of game are as follows:

  1. A 6 and 6 throw: Move two men from your opponent’s 1 point to his bar point.  Move two men from your opponent’s 12 point to your bar point  (a very strong throw).  Another strong play is to move three men to your bar and one man to your opponent’s bar point.
  2. A 5 and 5 throw: Two men from your opponent’s 12 point  to your 3 point.
  3. A 4 and 3 throw: Move two back men from your opponent’s 1 point to his 5 point and two men from your opponent’s 12 point to your own 9 point.
  4. A 3 and 3 throw: There are two excellent ways of playing this throw which are as follows: Move two men from your 6 to your 3 point, and two men from your 8 to your 5 point.  Move two men from your opponent’s 12 point to your 7 or bar point.
  5. A 2 and 2 throw: Move two men from your opponent’s 1 point to his 5 point.
  6. A 1 and 1 throw: The best opening throw of two dice: Move two men from your 8 to your bar point, and two men from your 6 to your 5 point.

The best regular throws and plays at start of game are as follows:

  1. A 6 and 5 throw: Move one man from your opponent’s 1 to his 12 point.
  2. A 6 and 4 throw:   Move one man from your opponent’s 1 to his bar point, and one man from opponent’s 12 to your 9 point.  This is weak throw.
  3. A 6 and 3 throw:   Move one man from your opponent’s 1 point to his bar point and one from opponent’s 1 point  to his bar point and one from opponent’s 12 to your 10 point.
  4. A 6 and 2 throw: Move two men from your opponent’s 1 point to his bar and 3 point.
  5. A 6 and 1 throw:   Move one man from your opponent’s 12 point to your bar point and one man from your 8 to your bar point.
  6. A 5 and 3 throw:   Move one man from your opponent’s 1 point to his 5 and one man from his 12 to your 8 point.
  7. A 5 and 3 throw:   Move two men from your opponent’s 12 point, one to your 10, and one to your 8 point.
  8. A 5 and 2 throw:   Move two men from your opponent’s 12 point, one to your 11, and one to your 8 point.
  9. A 5 and 1 throw:   Move one man from your opponent’s 1 point, one to his bar point.  A weak throw.
  10. A 4 and 3 throw:   Move two men from your opponent’s 1 point, one to his 4 point and one to his 5 point.
  11. A 4 and 2 throw:   Move one man from your 8 and one from your 6 to your 4 point.
  12. A 4 and 1 throw:   Move two men from opponent’s 1 point, one to opponent’s 2 point  and one to opponent’s 5 point.
  13. A 3 and 2 throw:   Move one man from opponent’s 1 to opponent’s 4 point and one from opponent’s 12 to opponent’s 11 point.
  14. A 3 and 1 throw:   Move two men, one from your 8 and one from your 6, to your 5 point.

A 2 and 1 throw:   Move one man from opponent’s 1 point  to opponent’s 2 point and one man from opponent’s 12 to your 11 point.  The weakest throw of the dice

Backgammon Strategy.  Now that we have discussed opening-move strategy, we continue with the following abbreviated tips, hints, and strategy that are essential to good Backgammon playing.

  1. The most important strategy of Backgammon is to start the two men on the opponent’s table as soon as possible to prevent their being blocked.  These two men are the weakest members of your forces and you should bring them to safety without any delay.  Once you form this habit you will have improved your game many times. A good double early in the game will prevent these men from being blocked; even a small double will help in this direction.  Also, if your two furthermost men are on your opponent’s 5 point, it will slow the poker draw progressive of your opponent’s men as they arrive at his home table.  If you advance these two men to your opponent’s bar point, it is also a valuable advantage, but at the start of the game it is wise to hold them on the 5 point just in case you decide to switch to a back game.
  2. Avoid taking unnecessary chances.  This follows next in importance to advancing your outposts.  The beginner usually attempts an overbold game, taking all kinds of chances to make point.  This is a very bad habit, for the reckless   type of play generally ends in a lost game.
  3. The primary objective of a strong opening is to obtain the advantageous points that will slow up the advance of your opponent’s two men in your home table. The most important point to secure first is your 5 point, then your bar point, which famishes you a powerful blockade on your opponent’s two outposts. While some players prefer the bar point before the 5 point, all agree that the bar point an the 5 point are the two strongest points to secure. Next in order comes your opponent’s 5 point, which permits the escape of your two outposts.
  4. Another important factor to keep in mind is not to crowd your men on your points. Getting a long string of 6 or more men on any point limits your position and places a number of your men out of play, also, avoid playing your men on to the low points in your home table, as these men also are out of action, and the position puts you at a disadvantage.
  5. Never take up a blot in your home table, unless certain that you can block that point. Remember that the men reaching your home table have theoretically traveled all around the board, and their value is much greater than your opponent’s two men in your home table. If your opponent’s men are hit in your home table, they are only set back a few points, whereas if your men are hit in your home table, they must ret ravel 19 points to again reach the point where they were hit.
  6. Do not expose a man to being hit unless the risk means a greater risk for your opponent if he takes advantage of it.
  7. Another vital tactic that is important to lean is that of shutting out your opponent by closing your home table. This basically consists of blocking all the points in your home table so that if you hit an opponent’s blot on some other part of the board, he will be unable to restart that man and must rest idle while you continue to play.
  8. When forced to leave a blot, always attempt to keep as far away as possible from your opponent’s men. A blot seven points away from your adversary can only be hit with a combination throw, and the chances of doing this are about 5 to I at that distance. If you are forced to leave a blot within 6 points of your opponent, leave it as near as possible, one point away being safest. Also, when leaving a blot, try to choose a point which is more likely to be covered next throw.
  9. When the numbers thrown on the dice are not available to make points, be sure to use them to make preparations for securing points. If your opponent is a safe distance away, spread these builders so that the following throw will permit you to make another point.
  10. The expert Backgammon player always knows at all times exactly how far ahead or behind he is of his adversary. The best way to determine your comparative strength or weakness is as follows: First, pair any men you and your opponent have on opposite points, then calculate how many points your unpaired men are from the home. Then by making the same calculation with your adversary’s unpaired men and comparing the total you can estimate which player is ahead. Once your position is known, you will know just when you must change your tactics or resort to a back game.
  11. If your adversary is ahead of you when bearing off, never play up from your 4 or 3 points while still having a large number of men on your 6 point. Example: Suppose that your 6 point is loaded with six men and you obtain a small throw of a three and a two; it would be wiser to move up two men from your 6 point, rather than play the men up from the lower points. The two men played forward from the 6 point would leave only four men on that point, and a lucky throw of double sixes would clear these men from the board and give you a possible chance of overtaking your opponent. If you had played up the low throw from the 4 or 5 points, the double sixes would still leave two men on your 6 point, and the chances of hitting two more sixes in the next few throws would be highly improbable.
  12. After sending one or two of your opponent’s men to the bar and having three or more points blocked in your home table, do not fail to spread your oncoming men so that you can make a new point in your home table or be ready to rehit his men as they reenter.
  13. Guard against decoy blots left by your opponent, especially if he is an’ experienced player. Make doubly sure that the blots are forced or attempted at a great risk, and before hitting same, make certain that his home table is not closed so that if your men are rehit they will be locked out on the bar.
  14. If your adversary has locked your two outposts in his home table on his one point and has already brought all his men into his home table and is bearing off his men, the only chance of victory you have is to hold these men in position in the hopes of forcing him to leave a blot as he bears his men. If he should open another point in the midst of his men, endeavor to split up your two men, leaving two blots which form a greater menace to him, as you still have the opportunity of hitting him with the favorable throw and you are putting him in a position where an unfavorable throw on his part may force him to hit one of these blots which then may reenter and send his man or men back to start over. If you can establish your two outposts on the 5 point in your opponent’s home table, you are quite safe from any effective block of these two men, and your outside men can then be advanced with more effective action.
  15. As the game nears the end and the contest is tight, the men must be advanced to the home table in the fastest manner possible. One way of doing this is to make plays that will carry a man from one table to another. Example: If you have a man on your opponent’s 10 point and a three is thrown, move this man across the table to your 12 point; a play .that takes the man into your outer table. If you had a man on your 12 point and six is thrown, the play would be to move this man into your home table. Playing your men so that they can go from one table to another permits you to gain the maximum amount of speed in bringing them home.
  16. In throwing off, when your home table is closed and your opponent has men on the bar, the safest procedure is to move your men up in your home table rather than to take men off for the throws. This opens up the high points in your home table, so that your adversary can enter on these points, which removes the danger of his hitting you on re- entry.
  17. In throwing off, when your opponent still has a man or men in your home table, try and keep an even number of men upon. the points nearest the bar to avoid an unnecessary blot.
  18. In throwing off, after your opponent has passed your men, try to bear off with the fastest possible speed. Remove as many men as possible with each throw, and when certain throws compel you to move up, try to cover the vacant points. A home board with all - points covered is more quickly cleared in bearing.


This variant of Backgammon is played by three or more players although it is still a two-handed poker game. The players cast dice for precedence, and the one throwing the highest number becomes the man in the box; second highest is captain for all the others, and they rank below the captain in accordance with the numbers they throw. Players who tie throw again to determine their rank.
The play is between the man in the box and the captain. Other players may advise the captain, but in case of disagreement he himself has the final decision as to how a move shall be made. If he wishes to double and any of his partners do not want to take the risk, they resign and forfeit their stakes to him. He continues the game on his own responsibility assuming all risk. The man in the box then decides whether to accept the double or resign.
If the man in the box doubles, each opponent must accept individually or pay the current stakes and resign. If the opponent of the man in the box resigns, the next highest player in standing who accepts the double takes his place at the board as the new captain.
If the player in the box wins the game, he stays in the box, and the next member of the team in order replaces the losing captain. If the man in: the box loses (including loss by refusal of a double), he becomes the lowest- ranking member of the team. His place in the box is taken by the winning captain, and the next player in order moves up to captain. When a game ends, the player in the box collects from or pays to each remaining active member of the team the full value of the stake at that time.

Partnership Backgammon

Backgammon can be played, like many other two-player games, in partnership-two players versus two, or three against three. In the two-against-two partnership game, one member of each team plays against a member of the other, their Backgammon boards arranged so that rolls of the dice can be seen by all four players. On each side, one player plays Black, while the other partner plays White. The members of only one team roll the dice; one casts for Black and his throws are used by the Black players on both sides, the other rolls for White and his casts are used by both White players. When any player has bome off all his pieces, his team wins the contest.

Dutch Backgammon

This game is played in the same way as Backgammon except that all the men or stones start on the bar, and each player must enter all his 15 men before advancing any of them. He may not hit a blot until he has moved at least one man around to his own inner table.

Turkish Backgammon

In this variation, which is also called Moultezim, the play is the same as in regular Backgammon except for the following:

  1. All 15 of White’s men start on Black’s 12 point and Black’s 15 men start on White’s 12 point. Black must move all of his men the full 24 points around the board: first to the right from White’s 12 point in the White outer board, into White’s inner board, then into his own inner board, and off to the left (instead of the right as in regular Backgammon). White also moves in a counterclockwise direction: from the outer board and into the White inner board and off to the right, the same as in the regular game.
  2. Both players must get to their own outer boards with their first men before moving a second one from the starting point.
  3. One man on any spot is a point.
  4. Men are not hit or sent home; there are no blots. Therefore since you cannot stop on top of any man, the most important point of strategy in Moultezim is to create a prime in order to block your opponent. However, the rules of the poker game do not permit a player to create a prime commencing at the starting point of his opponent; that is, on this section of the board a player must leave one point open.

Greek Backgammon

Greek Backgammon, commonly called Plakato, is played like regular Backgammon except for the following:

  1. All 15 of White’s men are on the Black one point, and all of Black’s men are on the White one point. All the men must move the full 24 points, in the same direction as they do in regular Backgammon.
  2. A player can stop on an opponent’s man but he cannot remove the piece from the board. That is, the player can leave his man on his opponent’s point and the opponent cannot move his man until the player moves his man off.


This middle East variation is played like regular Backgammon except for the following:

  1. The men are arranged on the board and move in the same direction as in Greek Backgammon.
  2. As in the case of Turkish Backgammon, the men are not sent home.
  3. One man stopping anywhere is considered a point, while six men in a row constitute a prime.
  4. When a player rolls a double, he plays it as in regular Backgammon, but in Gioul, he continues playing the succeeding doubles all the way to double sixes. Examples: If double ones are cast, the player first plays the double ones, followed by double twos, double threes, double fours, double fives, and double sixes. If double fours are rolled, the player plays the double fours, followed by double fives and double sixes. All moves are made before the opponent makes his next roll.
  5. If a player cannot complete all of his doubles, he forfeits the rest to his opponent. Example: Suppose double fours are rolled and the player is able to play the double fours but he cannot play the double fives, or can only play one five, his opponent will then complete playing the fives and also play the double sixes. If, in turn, the opponent is unable to finish the doubles, the play of that toss is then considered finished and the opponent makes a new roll.

Acey Deucey

An elaboration of Dutch Backgammon which is a favorite of the United States Navy. Marine Corps, and merchant marine. It is a game for two players an uses a pair of dice which are usually thrown from the hand, although a cup is used in tournament . Thirty counters, or men, are used, 15 of each color, and an Acey Deucey mat or a Backgammon board is used.

Each player peewees a die, that is, each rolls a die, and the player throwing the highest number has the first move. If both throw the same number,. the throw is made again. If Black moves first and enters his men on the spaces 1 to 6, White must enter his men on the spaces directly opposite-24 to 19. Black moves to his right and around the table toward White’s starting spaces (counterclockwise), and White moves. in the opposite (clockwise) direction toward Black’s starting spaces. Black may, if he likes, enter his men on spaces 12 to 7 and move in the opposite ( clockwise) direction, in which case White must enter on spaces 8 to 13. The players always move in opposite directions.

Each player’s object is to enter and move his 15 men through one complete circuit of the board and take them off before his opponent succeeds in doing the same. Men are entered on the board and moved according to the numbers appearing on the dice, either number being played first and each number being played separately. If a player throws “fifty deuce” (5-2) he may enter one man on the 5 space and move it ahead two spaces or he may put two men in play, one on the 5 space and one on the 2 space. The same rule applies to the movement of the men, both numbers thrown being used to move one man or each number being used to move different men. As in checkers, once the player has moved and lifted his fingers from the man, the move may not be retracted.

Any number of men of the same color may occupy the same space. Two or more men of the same color on one space make that space dead for opposing men, who may not land on it. If a man lands on a space occupied by a single opposing man the latter is booted, or kicked, and must be removed from the board § and reentered on the starting spaces. It may be reentered at any time.

A pair of men on the space do not constitute a block past which the opposing pieces may not move but merely prevents opposing men from landing on that space. If Black has a man on space 1, White has a pair each on spaces 5 and 3, and Black throws 4-2, black may not move his man the total of six spaces because each number thrown must be used separately. He cannot use either the 4 or the 2 because these moves would bring him to spaces 5 and 3, which are occupied by opposing pairs. If he threw 4-3, however, he could move his man three spaces and then four spaces.
Doubles. When a pair of like numbers (two threes, two fours, etc.) are thrown, the player moves his men double the amount thrown. If two fours are thrown he makes of four moves of four spaces each.

Acey Deucey. When ace-deuce is thrown the player moves one man three spaces, or one man one space and another, two spaces. Then he selects any double number he desires and moves accordingly. If he selects double. fives he makes four moves of five spaces each. After these moves are completed he takes an additional throw of the dice. If the player cannot use any part of his acey-deucey throw or cannot select a double that he can use entirely, he uses whatever part he can and loses the balance including the right to make an additional throw.

Taking Off. When all 15 men have moved around the board and are within the last six spaces, they are taken from the board according to the throw of the dice. They ma also be moved forward within the last six spaces toward the last space on the board. This is often done in order to pair men and prevent booting when an opponent still has a man to enter. If a man is booted when men are being taken off, he must be reentered in the starting spaces and moved around the board again until he reaches the last six spaces before the taking-off process my be resumed.

When there are no men on the space whose number is thrown and when all the men remaining are so close to the last space on the board that they cannot move the number of spaces indicated by the throw, a man on the next highest space to the number thrown is taken off. For example, if there is a man on the opponent’s first space and three on his third space and a throw of 5-6 is made, since none of the men can be moved that many spaces, two of the men on the next highest (third) space are taken off. If one player covers six adjacent spaces with pairs it is known as a Hindenburg Line and completely blocks his opponent from moving past that section of the board until the arrangement is broken up.

Stakes. Players usually play for a specified amount per game or for so much a man. In the latter case the player who first takes off all his men wins the game and collects from his opponent as many units as the opponent has men left that have, not been taken off. If the stakes are a nickel a ma and the losing player has five men left, he loses 25 cents.

Ten Things Every Winning Acey-Deucey Player Must Know

  1. Learn the rules so thoroughly that you can recall them instantly and correctly.
  2. The best form of practice is to play alone. Many hours of enjoyment and heightened skill will be your reward.
  3. Take your time and study each play thoroughly before making it.
  4. Pay attention to your own game and try not to discuss your or your opponent’s plays during the game.
  5. Never touch a man (piece) until you are certain you are going to play it.
  6. Don’t take too great risks during the game, because a good sound game is generally a cautious one.
  7. Try and play with better players, as this is one of the best means of improving your game.
  8. Do not rattle the dice or draw on the table when it is your opponent’s turn to play-instead use that time to analyze the men on the board.
  9. When moving a man, don’t play hunches play the odds.
  10. Lose with good grace and sportsmanship, and remember that the main purpose of

the game is entertainment.

European Acey Deucey

While the pieces are set on the board as for regular Backgammon, this variant differs as follows:

  1. On a roll of acey-deucey (1-2), the stakes are doubled and the player may use the roll of 1-2, name any doublet he wishes, move this doublet and also the complementary doublet, and roll again. (The complement of a number is its difference from 7. Thus, having named 3-3, the player next uses 4-4.) Of course, if the player is unable to use any portion of the roll, he loses the rest of the acey-deucey privilege. Example: A player rolls 1-2, moves, names 5-5, moves, but can then move only three 2’s. He loses the fourth 2 and does not roll again.
  2. To bear off, the player must roll the exact number of the point on which he has men. Example: The player rolls 6-2, having men on all points but 6 point and 2 point. He has no move. But with any pieces outside his own table, he may move the men inside his home table, With all in the home table, however, only bearing off is permitted.

Russian Backgammon

In this variation, no men are placed upon the board at the start, but each player enters his men by throws of the dice both players enter in the same home table and both move in the same direction around the board to the opposite table, bearing off is the same as in Backgammon, after having entered two or more men, a player is at liberty either to continue entering his men with any subsequent throws, or to move the men already entered. When a blot is hit, the owner must reenter it before he makes any other move, but at any other time a player must move men already entered to use his full roll, even if unable to enter any additional of the original 15 off the board. Except on a player’s first roll of the game, doublets are used twice over; he can not only play the upper faces of the dice twice over, but the bottom (opposite) faces also, and can throw again before his opponent. After each thrown doublet the player continues to throw until he fails to throw a doublet, in which case he plays the numbers thrown and the throw passes to his opponent,

Tabard Backgammon

  This variant is played like regular Backgammon except that all of Black’s pieces are set up in White’s inner and outer tables, while all of White’s men are set up opposite these in Black’s inner and outer tables. There are the same number of pieces that there are on the same points as in the regular game and the play from there on is identical.


In this variation, which is played primarily as a basic practice game, black pieces are set up as usual (five on B6, three on B8, five on WI2, and two on WI), but White has only six men on the board, two each on B I, 82, and B3, the other nine being on the bar, all other rules are as in regular Backgammon.



Pinochle many Variations

Pinochle many Variations
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CAD found
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CHEMIN DE PER must play
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Stops Game

Skarney® and How It Is Played

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Cheating at Card Games

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