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Bridge: Contract and Auction

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Chess, checkers, and Teeko

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Chess, checkers and Teeko

American's three favorite “think” games are Chess, checkers, and Teeko.  One dates back to before the birth of Christ, the other to the middle Ages, while Teeko is the baby of the group having been introduced in the 1950’s.


Chess, the most universal of games, is probably the most sophisticated and profound; at the same time, it is one of the oldest.  There have been many fanciful legends as to its origin, and scholars who have tried to track down its source disagree.  The earliest evidence indicates that it originated in India sometime before the seventh or eighth century, and probably evolved from very ancient board games of movement like Parcheesi and Backgammon.
      The present forms of the pieces, and some of the modern moves, date to about the fifteenth century.  The literature of Chess, which began  with collections of Chess problems in the middle Ages, has grown until it surpasses that of any other game.

  1. Two players.
  2. The board.  The  board is a large square of 8 by 8 smaller squares, alternately colored light and dark.  The board is placed so that each player has a white square in the corner at his right.  (The light –colored squares are always called “white.”) In printed diagrams, by convention, the white player is always at bottom, and the black player is at the top.
  3. The Pieces.  Each player has 16 pieces of his own color: one King, one Queen, two Rooks, two Bishops, two Knights, and eight Pawns.  At the beginning they are placed on the board as shown here.

The notation of the Chessboard

The Powers of the Pieces.  The six different kinds of pieces each move in a different way, as described below:

The King moves one square at a time in any direction, on the rank (sideways), on the file (forward or backward), and diagonally.  The king may not move to any square that is attacked by an enemy piece.  The Queen is the most powerful piece, being able to move in any direction for any distance, so far as line is unobstructed.
            The Rook moves on diagonal along lines only (forward and backward), so far as the line is unobstructed by a man of his color.  If there is a hostile man in the way he may capture him.
The Bishop moves on diagonal lines only (forward and back), so far as the line is unobstructed by a man of his color.  If there is a hostile man in the way he may capture him.
            The Knight moves by jumping from point to point, unlike all the other pieces that move on a line.  Also, it cannot be obstructed by intervening  pieces.  The Knight makes an L-shaped move, going from one corner to the diagonally opposite corner of a rectangle measuring three squares by two.
            The Pawn moves forward on the file (away from the play).  On its first move only, it has a choice of moving forward either one or two squares.  Thereafter, it may move only one square at a time.
            capturing.  All pieces (except Pawns) capture in the same way that they move.  If a piece can move to a square occupied by an enemy piece, the move captures it.  The captured piece is removed from the board and replaced by the captor.  capturing is always optional.
            The Pawn captures differently.  It does not threaten the next square forward on the file; rather, it attacks the two squares forward on either side.  It captures by moving one square diagonally.  Advancing Pawns are open to capture by enemy Pawns on both adjacent files, and may not avoid this attack by  moving forward two squares on the first move.  Suppose a player  advances his Pawn two squares,  bringing  it to rest beside an enemy Pawn.  Had  the Pawn advanced only one square, the enemy Pawn could have captured it.  Under these circumstances the enemy may, if the player wishes, capture en passant (in passing) by taking the advancing Pawn and moving to the square that was passed.  This en passant capture must be made immediately  and not at any later turn.
            castling.  Castling is a special move which a player may make only once during a game.  It is a simultaneous move of two pieces: the King and a Rook.  The move is legal only if neither piece has moved previously, if the squares   between King and  Rook are vacant, if the King is not in check, and if the squares the King must cross are not threatened by the enemy.  The move is made by moving the King two squares toward the Rook, and then placing the Rook on the square jumped over by the King.  The purpose of castling is usually to put the King in a safer place behind unmoved Pawns, or to “connect the Rook” and bring them to central files on which they can exert pressure.
            Queening.  If  a Pawn reaches the eighth rank (the far edge of the board), it is promoted; that is, it is removed from the board and any other piece may be substituted for it.  It is usually exchanged for a queen because this is the most powerful piece, but the player  may choose a Rook, bishop, or Knight, which is sometimes an advantage.
            The Play.  White always moves first, and then the moves alternate.  The object of play is to capture the enemy King, although the King is never actually removed from the board.  When a move threatens the King, although the King is never actually removed from the board.  When a move threatens the King it is a check, and the attack must immediately  be parried by moving the King, capturing the attacking piece, or interposing a piece on the line of attack.  When none of these defenses are possible, the King is checkmated, and the parlour poker game ends.  Most games end before a checkmate, one player resigning because the he sees that he will eventually lose.
            Drawn Games.  A draw may result in any of the following ways:
Stalemate.  When a player whose turn it is to move can make no legal move, even though not in check, the game is stalemated and considered drawn.
Lack of Force.  When the pieces left on the board are too few  and too weak to force checkmate, the game is drawn.
Perpetual Check.  One player shows that he can continue to check the adverse king indefinitely.
Repetition.  If the identical position of all pieces, white and black, recurs   three times in a game, with the same player to move each time, this player may claim a draw.
Fifty-Move Rule.  If during 50 consecutive moves no pawn has been moved  and no capture has been made, either player may ask the other to demonstrate a forced win or to agree to a draw.
Agreement.   The players may agree to a draw.  In tournament play this is usually permitted only after Black’s thirtieth move.

Additional Rules.  Irregularities in Chess are handed as follows:
            Touch and Move.  If a player touches one of his own pieces, he must it if he can legally do so.  If he touches an adverse piece, he must capture it, if legally possible.  If a player touches several pieces, his opponent may choose which is to be moved or which is available.
Adjusting. A player may touch his own pieces in order to adjust them, provided he gives notice in advance by announcing “I adjust.”
Completed Move. A completed move, if legal, may not be retracted. A simple move is completed when the player removes his hand from the piece. A capturing move is completed when the adverse piece is taken from the board and the player removes his hand from the capturing piece. A promoting move is completed when the Pawn is taken from the board and the player removes his poker hand from the piece that replaces it.
Illegal  Move. If a player makes an illegal move, and his opponent calls attention to the fact before touching any of his own pieces, the illegal move must be retracted, and the player must if possible make a legal move with the same piece. If the illegal move was a capture, the player must if possible make a legal capture of the same piece.
Erroneous Position. If during play it is proved that an illegal move was made and not retracted, or that the number or position of the men was altered illegally, the position just prior to the illegal move or alteration must be restored, and the game continued from that point. If during play or immediately afterward it is proved that the pieces were initially placed on the board incorrectly, or that the board was turned wrongly, the game is annulled.
Erroneous Checkmate. An erroneous announcement of checkmate, either on the move or in several moves, is void without penalty and the game must be continued.
Deportment. A player may not take advice from spectators, and may not refer to or have at the table any written notes other than the record of the game. A player should not comment on any of the moves to his opponent, or in any way annoy or distract his opponent. A player forfeits the game if he willfully upsets the board or disarranges the men, refuses to comply with a legal requirement, arrives more than an hour late for commencement or resumption of play, or exceeds the time limit.
Time Limit. In tournament playa time limit is used. Each player must make 30 moves in the first two hours of his own time, 45 moves in the first three hours, etc. (This is sometimes stepped up to 20 moves per hour.) In “rapid transit” play, only ten seconds is allowed for each move, and a referee who keeps time is used.
Values of the Pieces. The relative powers of the pieces are approximately in this ratio: Pawn, 1; Knight, 3; Bishop, 3; Rook, 5; Queen, 9. The Knight and Bishop are about equal, except that the latter sometimes has an edge depending on position. Two Bishops together are usually stronger than an opposing Bishop and Knight, and are even stronger against two Knights. The Bishop is less vulnerable to attack because it can operate at a distance, and in two directions. The Knight is more easily repelled because it must be brought closer to its targets. It is superior only in positions where lines are blocked, or in an ending against a single Bishop when its ability to reach squares of both colors is an advantage.
Minimum Force. If one side is reduced to only a King, the other can force checkmate if, besides his King, he has any of the following: one Queen, one Rook, two Bishops, or a Bishop and a Knight. Having either one Bishop, one Knight, or two Knights is not sufficient to force checkmate.
A Queen wins against a Rook and usually against a Rook and a Pawn, but can only draw against a Rook and a minor piece. (Bishops and Knights are minor pieces; Queens and Rooks are major pieces.) Two bishops can usually basic draw rule against a Queen, but a Bishop and a Knight or two Knights usually lose.  A Rook and a minor piece against a Rook can usually only draw, and a Rook against one minor piece can usually only draw.
A single Pawn cannot win unless it can be promoted. If the lone King can occupy the square in front of the Pawn before it has reached the seventh rank, the game is a draw.
Notation. Chess books in English usually use a descriptive notation in which the pieces are abbreviated to initials: K, Q, b, R, P. Kt was formerly used for Knight, but this is now usually N. Each file is designated by the first-rank piece that originally stands on it, such as K- file and Q-file. For the other pieces, K or Q must be prefixed to show whether the file is on the King’s or Queen’s half of the board, such as KB-file.
The ranks are numbered 1 through 8, going away, in each case, from the player whose piece moves.  White’s ranks 1 and 2 are Black’s ranks 8 and 7.
A square is identified by its file and rank, in that order.  Because the ranks are numbered two ways, the color must be named; for example.  White’s KB6 is the same square as Black’s KB3.  The color is omitted in recording the moves because the reference is always to the color of the moving piece.
The initial of the piece moved is written first, followed by a hyphen, then the square moved to; for example, P-K4 means that a Pawn moves to King 4 (the fourth rank of the K-file).  For a capturing move, the hyphen is replaced by the symbol x (meaning “takes ”), followed by the initial of the piece captured, as PxP, bxN.  If N-KB3 is ambiguous because either Knight is specified, as QN-KB3.  Other symbols used are:

Ch                    check
O-O                 castles on the King side
O-O-O                        castles on the Queen side
!                       Best (indicates a good move)
?                      Not the best move

Moves are numbered consecutively, each move comprised of one by White and one by Blackjack casino .  In linear form:1 P-K4, P-K4; 2 N-KB3, N-QB3; B-N5, P-QR3, …
In columnar form White’s moves are in the left column, black’s in the right:

1 P-K4                        P-K4
2 N-KB3         N-QB3
3 B-N5                        P-QR3

The chessmen (left) and how they are set up at the start of the game

Chess Strategy

The two opposing armies being with an equality of force; they have the same number and kind of pieces.  The loss during action of a single piece, even a  Pawn, can lead to defeat.  When a piece is threatened with capture this equality of force can be maintained by the counter capture wins a piece of less value, the exchange has been lost and the winner has acquired a decided material advantage because the total value of his pieces gives him greater fighting power, which can be used to acquire further advantages.
            But the force the pieces exert also depends upon their positions on the board.  Advanced pieces, centrally located, with open lines along which they can attack, have great mobility; the total force they can bring to bear on the enemy is greater than for pieces for from the battle.  The added fighting power acquired from superior position can even defeat an army that has greater material.  These two objectives, material and positional superiority, are both vital and must be considered together.
            Following are some of the positional advantages which you must keep always in mind and try to achieve.
Early Development. Development consists in moving the pieces (especially the major pieces on the first rank) forward where they can engage the enemy pieces in action. At the game’s beginning only the player’s Pawns and his Knights are free to move; they guard and exert pressure only on the third rank. Pawns, usually the KP and QP, must be moved in order to open up lines along which the Bishops, Rooks, and Queen can move forward to squares from which they can threaten more advanced ranks and attack enemy pieces.
A piece is said to be developed when it has left its original square, and development is considered to be complete when the Queen, bishops, and Knights have moved forward and the King has moved (usually by castling) so that the Rooks are connected, that is, no pieces remain on the first rank between them.
The player who completes his development first has an advantage, because he has acquired more opportunities for attack. Any undue delay in development leads to trouble, and sometimes to quick defeat.
It is preferable to develop a piece to a square on which it will not impede the development of any other piece. An effort should be made to post each piece at once on its most effective square, usually the most advanced square from which it cannot easily be driven off. As a general rule, avoid moving any piece more than once during the development because this loses time.
Control of the Center. As the pieces develop they must also exert their force on the four center squares of the board (the fourth and fifth squares on both the King’s and Queen’s files). A piece or Pawn does not need to occupy one or more of these squares; more often it threatens these squares so that the adversary is prevented from posting and maintaining a piece there. A Pawn, being a short-range piece, must at least reach the secondary center (the eight squares surrounding the four center squares) in order to exert its pressure on the center.
Controlling or guarding the center is important throughout the game because long- range pieces have maximum range and mobility when posted there, and because such control tends to split card variant the opposing army into two wings and to obstruct its communications:
Outpost Knight. Queens; Rooks, and Bishops can attack on open lines from a distance, but the Knight must engage the enemy at close quarters and his most effective position is on an advanced square, especially in the center. A Knight posted safely on the enemy fourth or third rank threatens so many surrounding squares that he is a constant danger.
Open Files. A file is open when there are no Pawns on it, and half-open for a player when his own Pawn is no longer on it. Such files provide avenues along which the Rooks can operate: attacking, aiding in the defense, or moving out and then attacking along the rank. A Rook is a heavy gun whose long- range threats are serious. A player must often oppose an enemy Rook on an open file with his own Rook, neutralizing its power by threatening to exchange. If the player cannot ward off an attack that penetrates his own forces deeply, he may find his King in sudden danger.
Diagonals. These are the avenues along which the Bishops exert their force, either for attack or for defense. Pawns and minor pieces that obstruct a diagonal limit a Bishop’s range and mobility. Long open diagonals invite attack and are positional weaknesses to be avoided.
Pawn Skeleton Formation. Pawns are problems. They must advance to open the way for other pieces, but Pawn advances also weaken the protection they can give to the squares of their home territory. Pawn advances are irrevocable-both the immediate and long- range effects must be carefully considered. Pawns must protect each other and stay connected in a skeletal formation that is not easily broken. Premature advances may leave holes which enemy outposts can fill; doubled Pawns (two of the same color on the same file) weaken their defensive formation.
Mobility. Like cavalry, pieces must maintain as much freedom to move as possible. When they are constricted and their avenues of attack blocked, either by other pieces or their own, the firepower of the pieces is diminished. Immobility can cause a player to lose fairly rapidly.
Skirmishes. Both material and positional advantages accrue from winning poker rules local engagements such as advancing an unopposed piece to a strong post, forcing a major piece to withdraw by an attack with a less valuable piece, and the successful capture of an enemy piece by massing more attackers against it than there are defenders that can be brought into position to guard it. Each player must watch continually for the development of such skirmishes, and must try to have a superior force near enough to fight it successfully.
Tactics .  Tactical threats, which are often easily countered, are continually employed.  The attacker uses them to improve his own position, and at the same time to weaken that of the enemy by forcing him to limit his replies to defensive moves.
The Pinochle.  A piece is pinned when it is attacked but cannot move without exposing its own King to check, an illegal move.  It is also said to be pinned if it cannot move because it protects another more valuable piece on the same line of attack.  A pinned piece has lost its mobility, as well as the protection it may have been giving any other piece buy guarding it.  The pinned piece is in immediate danger when the attack is made by a less valuable piece, or when more pieces can join in the attack than there are friendly pieces that can come to its defense.
Discovered Check.  Checks of any sort harass the defender because his choice of replies is limited.  Especially dangerous is a discovered check, which occurs when an attacker moves an intervening piece off the line of a Queen, Rook, or Bishop, and unmasks its attack on the King.  The unmasking piece may capture a guarded enemy piece without being recaptured because the King must first move out of check, which gives the capturing piece a free move to take him out of danger.  Or the unmasking piece may, on its first move, reach a square from which it can attack a more valuable piece and then capture it on its next move.
Double Check.  A discovered check can become a double check when the unmasking piece also delivers a check.  The King’s only legal reply is to move, and if he cannot move he is checkmated.
Fork.  A fork is a simultaneous attack on two or more pieces.  It is always difficult to counter, and one piece is usually lost, as when a Pawn forks two Knights.  Knight forks attacking the Rooks, or the Queen and a Rook, can be expensive; any fork, one prong of which checks the King, can be dangerous.
Anyone can learn the mechanics of Chess which are outlined here, and it can be a fascinating game even for the beginner.  But the more he plays, the more he realizes what vast possibilities and what infinite variety the game contains.  No matter how much experience a player gains, no matter how deeply he studies the strategy and tactics inherent in those 64 squares and 16 pieces, he will find that there is always more to learn.  No man has mastered the game completely.  That is the challenge which has made it the most universally played and perennial of match no game.
Famous openings.   A gambit means the sacrifice of a pawn or a piece, or several successively, for an advantage in position.  Among famous chess openings and responses are:
Alekhine’s Defense: 1 P-K4, N-KB3; 2P-K5, N-Q4; 3 P-QB4, N-N3; 4 P-Q4, P-Q3
Caro –Kann Defense:   1 P-K4, P-QB3, N-N3; 4  P-Q4, P-Q4
Falkbeer Counter Gambit: 1 P-K4, P-K4; 2 P-KB4, P-Q4; 3 KPxP, P-K5
French  Defense: 1P-K4, P-K3; 2 P-Q4, P-Q4
Giuco Piano: 1 P-K4, P-K4; 2 N-KB3, N-QB3; 3B-B4, b-B4
Queen’s Gambit: 1 P-Q4, P-Q4;2 P-QB3, PxP
Queen’s Pawn’s Game:1  P-Q4, P-Q4
Reti’s opening:1 N-KB3, P-Q4,or N-KB3
Ruy Lopez: 1 P-K4, P-K4; 2 N-KB3, N-KB3; 3 B-N5
Sicilian Defense: 1 P-K4, P-QB4

There are classic games among chess players.  Here’s one that I selected to show how a game is played  to completion:







































































B-Q7 xh



BxN mate


The beginner, of course, must learn by playing; but his ability will improve faster if he also spends some time with one or more of the guidebooks for beginners that outline the basic principles of poker strategy and  teaches.  There are now many good ones available.



Pinochle many Variations

Pinochle many Variations
Two-Handed Pinochle
Two-Handed Doubling Redoubling
Auction pinochle
Strategy at Auction
CAD found
Partnership Auction
Auction pinochle without wido Individual play
Partnership Aeroplane Pinochle
Radio Partnership Pinochle

Other Members of the Bezique Family

The Bezique Family
Rubicon bezique
Two-handed sixty-six
Two-handed piquet
Boo-Ray or BOURÉ

The Big Euchre Family

The big euchre family
Strategy of euchre
Auction euchre
Table of scoring points
Spoil five
Double hasenpfeffer
Three-card loo

The Heart Group

Heart Group
Spot Hearts
Black Widow Hearts

The All-Fours Group

All-Fours Group
Shasta Sam
Auction Pitch Joker

Banking Card Games

Banking Card Games
Black Jack, casino Style
Black Jack Strategy
CHEMIN DE PER must play
Baccarat Banque
Faro or farobank
Banker and broker
Red Dogs

Card craps

The Stops Games

Stops Game

Skarney® and How It Is Played

Skarney® and How It Is Played
Alternate Skarney
Skarney Singles
Skarney Gin Doubles

Cheating at Card Games

Cheating at Card Games
Professional Card Cheats
Nullifying the Cut
The Peek
How to Shuffle Cards

Dice and their Many Games

Dice and their Many Games
The Casino Game: Bank Craps
English Hazard
Double Cameroon
Partnership Straight scarney Dice
Scarney Duplicate Jackpots
Scarney Chemin de Fer
Applying All Card Games Poker

Games Requiring Special Equipment

Hasami Shogi
Follow The Arrow

Lottery and Guessing Games

Lottery guessing game
Tossing Game
Race Horse Keno
The match Game

Glossary of Game Terms


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