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Bridge: Contract and Auction =================
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Contract and Auction

The principle of Bridge goes back more than 400 years in England.  Whist, the basic game, developed into bridge (1896), then Auction Bridge (1904), and finally Contract Bridge (1925).  Whist and Auction Bridge still have many followers, but since about 1930 contract bridge has been most popular.


Contract Bridge is the “hobby” game of more millions of people  than is any other card game played in the English-speaking countries and throughout the world.  It is first in the affections of the ultrafashionable circles that frequent Palm Beach, Newport, and other famous  resorts; and it is equally the properly of all walks of life, all sections of property of all walks of life, all sections of the United States, and all types of card players, from those who play casually in their homes.
            Contract Bridge is an ideal game for the entertainment of guests, especially when married couples get together, because it is a partnership game and husband  and wife do not have to play against each other.

  It is as ideally adapted for play by clubs  which  meet weekly in groups  of eight, twelve, or more; for large card  parties; and for tournament play, in clubs or homes, among serious players.  But the most fascinating feature of Contract Bridge is that is equally enjoyable to the casual player who does not want to take any game too seriously and to the scientific  player who wishes to study and master the intricacies of the game.
            The following pages describe the fundamental of the game, together with its rules, ethics, and proprieties.  For those who wish to learn the game well, there are hundreds of books, and thousands  of professional teachers  who give lessons  in Bridge; but the  best and quickest way to learn is to play in actual Bridge games as often as possible.

The Laws of Contract Bridge

The following rules of Contract Bridge are condensed from the Laws of Contract Bridge and reprinted here by permission of the American Contract Bridge League.

            Number of Players.  Four, two against two as partners.  Five or six may take part in the same game, but only four play at a time.
            The Deck .  52 cards.  Two packs, of  contrasting back designs, are invariably used.  While one pack is being dealt, dealer’s partner shuffles the other pack for the next deal.
            Rank of Cards.  Ace (high), king, queen, jack, ten, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two.
            The Draw. A shuffled pack is spread face down on the table and each player draws one card, but not one of the four cards at either end.  A player who exposes more than one cards  must draw again.  No player should expose his card before all have drawn.
            The player drawing the highest card deals first.  He chooses his seat and the pack with which he will deal; next  highest is his partner and sits across the table from him; the two others take the other two seats.  If two players draw cards of the same rank, as 6 and 6, the rank of the suits determines the higher card.

            Precedence.  When five wish to play, the draw establishes order of precedence Example: North draws A, South K, East 5, West 2 and a fifth player draws ♦ 2.  North and South  play as partners against East and West.  After the first rubber the fifth player plays and west sits out; after the next rubber west reenters the game and East sits out, so until North has sat out a rubber, after which the fifth player sits out again.  The procedure is the same with six players, except that two sit out each rubber.
            The Shuffle.  The player on dealer’s left shuffles the cards and places them at the dealer’s left.  The dealer (after shuffling again, if he wishes) sets the cards down at his right to be cut.
            The Cut.  The player at dealer’s right must lift off a portion of the pack (not fewer than four cards nor more than 48) and set it down toward dealer.  Dealer completes the cut.
            The Dealer.   Dealer deals 13 cards to each player, one card at a time face down, in clockwise rotation beginning with the player at his left.
            Rotation.  The turn to deal, to bid, and to play always passes from player to player to the left.

The Auction
Calls.  After looking at his cards, each player in turn beginning with dealer must make a call (pass, bid, double, or redouble).  If all four pass in the first round, the deal is passed out and there is a new deal by the next dealer in turn.  If any player makes a bid in the first round, the bidding is opened.
            Passing.  When a player does not wish to bid, to double, or to redouble, he says “Pass.”
            Bidding.  Each bid must name a certain number of texas holdem tricks in excess of six (called add tricks) which will become the trump  suit, if the bid becomes the contract; thus “One spade” is a bid to win seven tricks (6 + 1) with spades as trumps.  A bid may be made in no-trump, meaning that there will no trump suit.  The lowest possible bid is one, and the highest possible bid is seven.
            Each bid must name a greater number of odd tricks than the last preceding bid, or an equal number of a higher denominations.  No-trump is the highest  denomination., outranking spades.  Thus, a bid of two-no-trump will overcall a bid of two hearts, and a bid of four diamonds is required  to overcall a bid of three hearts.
            Doubling and Redoubling.  Any player in turn may double the last preceding bid if it was made by an opponent.  The effect of a double is to increase the value of odd tricks, overtricks, and under trick penalties if the doubled bid becomes the contract.  Any player play in turn may redouble the last preceding bid if it was made by his side and doubled by an opponent.  A redouble again increases the scoring values.

            A doubled or redoubled contract may be overcalled by any bid which would be sufficient to overcall the same contract  undoubled and redoubled, it may still be overcalled  by a bid of two in hearts, spades , or no trump and by a bid of three clubs, or by any higher bid.
            Information as to Previous Calls.  Any player in turn may ask to have all previous  calls made in the auction restated, in the order in which they were made.
            Final Bid and the Declarer.   When a bid, double, or redouble is followed by three consecutive passes in rotation, the auction is closed.  The final bid in the auction becomes contract.  The player who, for his side, first bid the denomination named in the contract becomes the declarer.  If the contract  names a trump suit, every card of that suit becomes a trump.  Declarer’s partner becomes dummy, and the other side become defenders.

The Play
Leads and Plays.  A play consists of taking a card from one’s hand and placing it, face up, in the center of the table.  Four cards so played, one from each hand in rotation, constitute a trick.  The first card played to a trick is a lead.  The leader to a trick may lead any card.  The other three hands  must follow suit if they can, but, if unable to follow suit, may play any card.

According to Contract Bridge rules, this trick consists of a card from each player; (bottom) also plays partner’s hand-the dummy. (top)

Opening Lead; Facing the Dummy Hand.  The defender on declarer’s left makes the first lead.  Dummy then spreads his hand in front of him, face up, grouped in suits with the trumps at his right.
            Winning seven cards of Tricks.  A tricks containing a trump is won by the hand playing the highest trump.  A trick not containing a trump is won by the hand playing the highest card of the suit led. The winner of each trick leads to the next.


In Contract Bridge the first six tricks  (bottom) make up the “book,” and the remaining four score toward the contract.


Dummy.  Declarer plays both his and dummy’s cards, but each in proper turn.  Dummy may replay to a proper question but may not comment or take an active part in the play; except that he may call attention to an irregularity and may warn declarer (or any other player ) against infringing a law of the game; as by saying “It’s not your lead,” or asking “No spades?” when a player fails to follow suit to a spade lead. 
Played Card.  Declarer plays  a card from his own hand when  he places it on the table or names it as an intended play; and from dummy’s cards) or names it.  A defender plays  a card when he exposes it, with apparent intent to play, so that his partner Canasta see its face.  A card once played may not be withdrawn, except to correct a revoke or in the course of correcting an irregularities.
Taking in Tricks Won.  A completed trick is gathered and turned face down on the table.  The declarer and the partner of the defender winning the first trick for his side should keep all tricks won by his side should keep all tricks  won by his side  in front of him, so arranged that it is apparent how many tricks each  side has won, and the sequence in which they were won.

Claim or Concession of Tricks by Declarer.  If declarer claims or concedes one or more of the remaining tricks, or otherwise  suggests that play be curtailed, play should cease, and declarer, with his hand face up on the table, should forthwith make any statement necessary to indicate his intended line of play.  A defender may face his hand and may suggest a play to his partner.  If both defenders  concede, play ceases and declarer is considered to have won the tricks claimed.  If a defender disputes declarers claim.
Trick Conceded in Error.  The concession of a trick which cannot be lost by any play of the cards is void.
Inspecting Tricks During Play.  Declarer or either defender may, until his side has led or played  to the next trick, inspect a trick  and inquire which hand played any card to it.

The Scoring .  When the last (thirteenth ) trick has been played, the tricks taken by the respective sides are counted and their number agreed upon.  The points earned by each side in that deal are then entered to the credit of  that side on the score sheet.  See the Scoring  for the point values.

            Any player may keep score.  If only one player keep score, both side are equally responsible to see that the score for each  deal is correctly entered.  Each side has a trick score and a premium score.
            Trick Score.  If declarer made his contract, the trick-point value of the odd tricks he bid for is entered to the credit of his side in its trick score (called below the line.)
            Premium Score.  Odd tricks won by declarer in excess of his contract are overtricks and are scored to the credit  of his side in its  premium score (called above the  line).  Honors held in one hand and premiums for slams bid and made, for winning the rubber, and for undertricks are scored to the credit of the side earning them, in its premium score.
            Undertricks. When declarer wins fewer odd tricks than he bids for, his opponents score, in their premium score, the undertrick  premium for each trick by which he fell short of his contract.
            Slams.  If a side bids and makes a contract of six odds tricks (all but one trick), it receives  the premium for a little slam; seven odd tricks (all the tricks ), the premium for a grand slam.

            Vulnerable.  A side which has won its first online poker game toward the rubber becomes vulnerable.  It is exposed to increased undertrick penalties if it fails to make a contract, but receives increased premiums for slams, and for overtricks made in doubled or redoubled contracts.
            Honors.  When there is a trump suit, the ace, and king. Queen, jack, and ten of that suit are honors.  If a player holds four trump honors in his hand, his side receives  a 100-points premium whether he is declarer, dummy, or a defender; five trump honors in one hand, or all four aces at a no-trump contract 150-point premium.
            Game. When a side amasses 100 or more points in trick points (whether  threes points are scored in one   or more hands), it wins a game.  Both sides then start at zero trick score on the next.
            Rubber.  When a side has won two games, it receives the premium for the rubber – 500 points if the other side has won one game, 700 points if the other side has not won a game.  The scores of the two sides are then totaled, including both trick points and premium points, and the side which has scored the most points has won the rubber.  The player then draw again for partners and seats and a new rubber is begun.
            Back Score.   After each rubber, each player’s standing, plus (+) or minus (-), in even hundreds of points, is entered on a separate score called the back score/  an odd 50 points or more counts 100, so if a player  wins a rubber by 950 he is +10, if he wins it by 940 he is +9.
            Four-deal Bridge, or Chicago, or Club Bridge.  In a cut-in game, a player who is cut out often has a long wait till the rubber ends and he Canasta get back in.  Playing Four-Deal Bridge, a player seldom has to wait more than 15 or 20 minutes.  The game is often called Chicago because it originated in the Standard Club of Chicago.

            A round consists of four deals, one by each play player in turn.  Vulnerable (even if they  previously made game).
            First Deal:  Neither  side vulnerable.
            Second and Third Deal:  Dealer’s side vulnerable , opponents not vulnerable (even if they previously made game).
            Fourth Deal:  Both sides vulnerable.
            A passed-out deal is redealt by the same dealer.  There is a bonus of 300 for making game when not vulnerable and 500 when vulnerable.  A part score carries over as in rubber Bridge and Canasta help to make game in the next deal or deals, but is canceled by any game.  There is a bonus of 100 for making a part score on the fourth deal.  After four deals have been played, the scores are totaled and entered on the back score, as in rubber Bridge, and there is a new cut for partners, seats, and deal.
            Some play that on the second and third deals the dealer’s side is not vulnerable and the opposing side is vulnerable.  More points are usually scored in Four Deal Bridge than in the same number of deals at rubber Bridge – estimates  vary from 15 to 50 percent more.  This is chiefly because at least one side is vulnerable in three deals out of four.

            Illustration of Contract Bridge Scoring

  1. We bid two hearts and win nine tricks, scoring 60 points below the line (trick score) for two tricks at hearts bid and made  (30 each), and 30 points above the line (honor score) for one overtrick at hearts.  We now have a part score of 60 towards game.
  2. We bid two clubs and make four odd, scoring 40 points tricks score for two tricks bid and made (20 each), completing our game (100 points), so a line is drawn across both columns to show end of first game of rubber.  We also score 40 points for two overtricks  at clubs (20 each), and 100 points for four honors in one hand  (one of us held A K J 10).  We are now vulnerable.
  3. We bid four hears and are doubled and set one trick.  They score 200 for defeating  our contract because we are vulnerable.
  4. They bid four spades but take only nine tricks, being set one.  We score 50 points, for they are not vulnerable and we did not double.  One of them held   A Q J 10 , so they score 100 points  for honors even though they did not make their  contract.
  5. We bid and make one no-trump.  This scores 40 points for us below the line.  We need only 60 points more to make a game.
  6. They did and make three no-trump, scoring 40 for the first, 30 for the second, and 30 for the third trick over six (100 points below the line), and a game.  Another horizontal line is drawn across both columns, marking end of second game.  Our part score no longer Canasta count toward a tile poker gamesNow both sides are vulnerable.
  7. We bid two spades and are doubled.  We are set three tricks and the opponents held 100 honors as well.  They score 800 for the set and 100 for the honors.
  8. We bid and make six diamonds, a small slam, scoring 120 points trick score,  750 for a little slam, and 500 for winning the rubber.

Adding the score for both sides, we have 1,730 points, they 1,300; we win the rubber by 430.  This gives us a 4 point rubber

AMERICAN WHIST =================

Pinochle Many Variations

Pinochle Many Variations
Two-Handed Pinochle
Two-Handed Doubling Redoubling
Auction pinochle
Strategy at Auction
CAD found
Partnership Auction
Auction pinochle without wido Individual play
Partnership Aeroplane Pinochle
Radio Partnership Pinochle

Other Members of the Bezique Family


The Bezique Family
Rubicon bezique
Two-handed sixty-six
Two-handed piquet
Boo-Ray or BOURÉ

The Big Euchre Family

The big euchre family
Strategy of euchre
Auction euchre
Table of scoring points
Spoil five
Double hasenpfeffer
Three-card loo

The Heart Group

Heart Group
Spot Hearts
Black Widow Hearts

The All-Fours Group

All-Fours Group
Shasta Sam
Auction Pitch Joker

Banking Card Games

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CHEMIN DE PER must play
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Card craps

The Stops Games

Stops Game
Skarney® and How It Is Played

Skarney® and How It Is Played
Alternate Skarney
Skarney Singles
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Cheating at Card Games

Cheating at Card Games
Professional Card Cheats
Nullifying the Cut
The Peek
How to Shuffle Cards

Dice and their Many Games

Dice and their Many Games
The Casino Game: Bank Craps
English Hazard
Double Cameroon
Partnership Straight scarney Dice
Scarney Duplicate Jackpots
Scarney Chemin de Fer

Games Requiring Special Equipment

Hasami Shogi
Follow The Arrow

Lottery and Guessing Games

Lottery guessing game
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Race Horse Keno
The Match Game

Glossary of Game Terms