Illustrations of Most Frequent Irregularities and Penalties. In all the following examples, the four players at the bridge table are designated as South, declarer; North, dummy; West and East, defenders . their relative positions are:

NORTH (Dummy)
WEST EAST
SOUTH (Declarer)

Lead Out of Tuern. West should make the opening lead, but East leads the 7. South may say to West may say to West “Lead anything but a diamond.” West may lead any spade, heart, or club; and East picks up the 7 and puts it in his hand or South may say to West “Lead a diamond.” West may lead any diamond in his hand and East may pick up the 7 and play puokur either it or any other diamond he may hold or South may permit West to make any lead he pleases, but in this case 7 becomes a penalty card; East must place it face up on the table in front of him and leave it there. The first time he Canasta legally lead or play it he must do so, subject only to his duty to follow suit. Or, South may accept the 7 as a correct lead. In this case dummy exposes his hand and then South plays to the trick. West plays next and dummy last. If, after East’s out-of-turn opening lead, South had inadvertently exposed his hand, the lead would have stood, South’s hand would have become the dummy, and North would have become the declarer.
In another case, North makes an opening lead, thinking that West has won the contract. But South is the actual declarer. North’s card is put back in his hand. there is no penalty against the declaring side for exposing cards, since the information so given can be utilized only by the opponents.
Declarer Leads from Wrong Hand. North (dummy) won the last trick, but South (declarer) leads the K. West says “The lead is in dummy,” South replaces the K in his own hand and must lead a spade from dummy. When South plays to that trick, he does not have to play the K if he has another spade he prefers to play. (If dummy had not held a spade, South could have led any game of card from dummy.)
West could accept the out-of-turn lead of the K, if he wished, by following to it at once, before either he or East made any remark about its irregularity.
Revoke Corrected. South leads 6. West has some diamonds, but he plays ♣ 9. Dummy plays K and East plays 3. At this ju8ncture West says “Wait, I have a diamond.”
There is time for West to correct his revoke, because it is not established – neither West nor East has led or played to the next trick. West must leave the ♣ 9 face up on the table as a penalty card. He may play any diamond he wished and he elects to play A. Now declarer may retract dummy’s play of the K and substitute a small diamond. But East may not change his card.
In another case, South (the declarer) revokes and notices his error in time for correction. He replaces the revoke card in his hand, without penalty, and follows suit with any card he chooses.
Revoke Established. South leads K. West has a spade, but plays ♥ 7. East wins the trick with the A and leads a heart. It is now too late for West to correct his revoke. East, a “member of the offending side,” has led to the next trick and the revoke is established. Play proceeds normally, and let us suppose that East –West win one more trick.
South’s contract was two spades, and when play is ended he has won eight tricks. But as the revoke penalty, he may take two of East-West’s tricks and transfer them to his pile. That gives him ten tricks in all. He scores 60 below the line for making two spades, and 60 above the line for two overtricks. Note that South does not get game for making ten tricks at spades. He bid only two spades, and that is all he canasta poker score toward game. Tricks transferred as the result of a revoke penalty are scored exactly as though won in play. If South, having bid two spades, had won ten tricks without the revoke, he could not have made game; therefore he cannot make game as a result of the revoke penalty.
Finally, take a case in which West revokes and East, who wins the tricks, establishes the revoke by leading to the next trick; play continues, but East-West do not win another trick. After the play is completed, South may take only one trick as the revoke penalty- the trick on which the revoke occurred. He is not entitled to any trick the defenders won before the revoke occurred, because obviously the revoke could have had nothing to do with how such tricks were won.

Proprieties in Bridge . The dealer should refrain from looking at the bottom card before completing the deal. The other players should refrain from touching or looking at their cards until the deal is completed.
A player should refrain from: calling with special emphasis, inflection or intonation; making a call with undue delay which may result in conveying improper information to partner; indicating in any way approval or disapproval of partner’s call or play; making a remark or gesture or asking a question from which an inference may be drawn ; attracting attention to the number of tricks needed to complete or defeat the contract; preparing to gather a trick before all four hands have played to it; detaching a card from his hand before it is his turn to lead or play; watching the place in a player’s hand from which he draws a card.
Do not allow partner’s hesitation or mannerism to influence a call, lead or play. It is proper to draw inferences from an opponent’s gratuitous acts, but at one’s won risk. It is proper to keep silent in regard to irregularities committed by one’s own side, but it is improper to infringe any law of the game deliberately. It is improper to employ any convention whose significance is known to partner but has not been announced to the opponents.

Contract Bridge Stratagie

The main object in Bridge is to score as many points as possible. This Canasta be done in one of two ways; by securing the contract for your side and fulfilling it successfully, scoring points for tricks, overtricks, and premiums; or by keeping your oddonents from fulfilling their contract and so score for your side points for penalties.
Often more points Canasta be scored for your side by catching opponents in overbids and doubling them than by taking the bid yourself. Bear in mind that the poker winner of the rubber is the side that scores the most points and that may not necessarily be the side that played the most contracts.
In life the fellow who always knows the score holds a definite advantage. The same is true in Bridge . Become thoroughly familiar with the tables of scoring values. Develop the habit of checking your side’s score after every hand. bids and play are affected by the score.
Evaluating the Hand. To get some idea of the strength of a hand, the following table of quick tricks may be used in making an estimate. A quick trick is a card or combination of cards which will usually win a trick, regardless of what suit is eventually trump and regardless of who wins the contract. Learn this table by heart if you Canasta. (x refers to a low card, usually lower than ten.)

QUICK TRICKS

Quick Trick

Ace and king of the same suit

2

Ace and queen of the same suit

1 ½

Any ace

1

King and queen of the same suit

1

Any king and x of the same suit

½

Queen, jack, and x of the same suit, or queen and x of one suit plus jack and x of another suit are considered by many to have ½ -quick-trick value. Others consider these simply as plus values but gives them no definite numerical weights. Any jack added to any of the values in the table is also a plus value. Note: Do not count any one suit for more than two quick tricks. Thus, ace, king, and queen or ace, king, queen, and jack are only counted as two quick tricks each the values of their ace-kings.
The Point Count. In recent years there has been a popular revival of the point-count method of evaluating hands for bidding. The point count goes back to Million Work, who is credited with having originated it some decades ago.
The most useful application of the point count in its modern form seems to be in no-trump bidding, where it has proven itself a precise and scientific instrument. Most good poker players use both the quick-trick and point-count methods in evaluating the strength of a hand, as circumstances warrant, and rely on neither exclusively. This should be borne in mind when reading the following summary of the highlights of the point count as it is used today.
The Point-count Table: Any Ace, four; king, three; queen, two, jack, one. A combined count of approximately 26 points in the two hands of a partnership normally will produce game in no-trump or a major, 29 points in a minor. A total of approximately 33 points will produce a small slam and 37 a grand slam.
In opening bids of one in a suit the count of the hand is arrived at by combining the point value of high cards and the following: 3 points for a void, 2 for a singleton, 1 for a doubleton. A hand of 14 points should usually be opened, but hands with lesser count may be opened as convenient.
One No-Trump and Responses: Only high cards are valued when bidding no-trump and no points are assigned for distribution. To open with one no-trump the hand must be of no-trump pattern with at least three suits stopped. The count should be between 16 and 19- some prefer 16 to 18. it is not a forcing bid and may be passed.
If the responding hand is of no-trump with 8 or 9 points or 7 points and a five-card minor. Raise to three no-trump with 10 to 14, or four no-trump with 15 to 16, to six no-trump with 17 or 18, to seven no-trump with 21. A response of two in a minor indicates a long suit but less than 7 points; two in a major shows a five-card suit with perhaps as many as 8 or 9 poi8nts in the hand and an unbalanced distributions. A response of three in a suit shows an unbalanced hand and 10 or more points. A response of four in a major shows a fairly long suit, an unbalanced hand and less than 10 points in high poker cards .
The Stay man Convention: In a modifications known as the Stayman convention a response of two clubs to one no-trump is artificial. It suggests the responder has one or two major suits of four cards or more and 8 or 9 points. It asks the original no-trumper to name, if he Canasta, a major suit of four cards headed by at least a queen. It looks toward a safer contract in a major.
If original no-trumper has no four-card major, he makes the artificial rabid of two diamonds with a hand of minimum point count. This permits responder to rebid two or three no-trump according to the strength of his hand. If responder bids a major suit over declarer’s two diamonds, he is guaranteeing five cards in the suit. If responder rebids his clubs a second time, he indicates he wants to play the hand in clubs only, since his holding is insufficient to have the hand play in no-trump.
Two and Three No-Trump and Responses: Open two no-trump with 22 to 24 and all suits stopped; three no-trump with 25 to 27. An opening two no-trump is not a demand bid and may be passed; an opening three no-trump is not a shutout.
In responding to two no-trump: Raise to three with 4 to 8 points go to three of a suit and then rebid four no-trump. Jump to six no-trump with 11 or 12 points. Bid three of a suit and then rebid six no-trump with 11 or 12 points. Bid three of a suit and then rebid six no-trump with 13 or 14. Jump to seven no-trump with 15. Show any six-card major regardless of how low the point count.
In responding to three no-trump: raise to four no-trump with 7 points; to six no-trump with 8 or 9. Bid four diamonds and rebid six no-trump with 10 or 11 points; raise to seven no-trump with 12. Show a five–card suit with 5 points in the hand.
Responding to a Suit Bid of One: Holding 5 to 9 points, a suit may be shown at the level of one; otherwise the response is one no-trump. A suit may be shown at the level of two with 10 points, or with fewer points if the suit is fairly long. With no-trump distribution jump to two no-trump holding 16 to 18. Jump to three in partner’s suit with 13 to 15; to three of another suit with 13 to 16.

Bidding Inferences. The player should think of the bidding as a kind of special language in which he tries to convey to his partner, or receive from him, information that will help both partners to gauge correctly the possibilities in their combined holdings and so enable them to reach the best contract. He should also pay attention to the bidding of opponents. He Canasta learn things from their bidding that may prove useful in playing a contract or defending against it.
Biddable Suits. Generally a suit should have four or more cards to be originally biddable. For safety’s sake a four-card suit should have at least ace, king or queen, and ten- though this is not a must and a five card suit, queen or jack, and ten. A six-card suit or longer needs no honor card.
More Than One Biddable Suit: With biddable suits, bid them as follows: If the suits are equal in length and touch in rank for example, spades and hearts, and diamonds bid the higher-ranking one first regardless of which suit has the higher cards. Later the lower-ranking suit is bid. Example: If a player holds two four-card biddable suits in spades and hearts, he should bid spades first; then bid the heart suit when his next turn to bid comes.
If both suits are of five-card length, bid the higher-ranking suit first, even if it is weaker than the other suit; then bid the lower ranking suit, if the two biddable suits are of unequal length, bid the longer suit first, even if the other has higher cards.
Rebiddable Suits. A suit is considered rebiddable it may be bid again if it is at least of five-card length . generally, five–card suit should have at least a king and a lower honor card or be headed by queen-jack-nine to qualify as a rebiddable, regardless of whether it has any honor cards. If there are two five-card rebiddable suits, the lower-ranking one is rebid, not the higher-ranking one. This indicates to the partner that the player holds two five-card suits.