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Bridge: Contract and Auction

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For an Opening Bid

Four–Card Suits contain four high-card points
(example :   K-J-x-x, a –x-x-x)
Five–Card Suits : Any Five-Card Suit (x-x-x-x-x)

For a Response or Rebid
Q-10-x-x-or better  (example: Q-10-x-x, K-x-x-x, a-x-x-x)
Any Five–Card  Suit (-x-x-x-x-x)


            Four-Card Suits                        No four-card suit is rebiddable
            Five-Card suits              Must be Q-J-9-x-x-or better
            Six-Card Suits                           Any six-card suit is rebiddable (x-x-x-x-x-x)


Opening Bids.  An opening bid is the first bid made in the deal.  There are basic requirements of the opening bid, as shown in the list below.

One of  a suit

  1. 14-point hands must be opened.
  2. 13-point hands may be opened if a good rebid is available (a rebiddable suit or a second rebiddable suit).
  3. All openings must contain two quick poker tricks .
  4. A third-position  opening is permitted with 11 points if hand contains a good suit.

Two of a suit (forcing to game)

  1. 25 points   with a  good five-card suit (1 point  less with a second good five card suit)
  2. 23 points with a good six-cad  suit.
  3. 21 points with a  good seven card suit.

Three, four, or five of suit
(preemptive bids)

Preemptive bids show less than 10 points in high cards and the ability to win within two tricks of the contract  vulnerable and within three tricks not vulnerable.  They should usually be based on a good seven card or longer suit.

One no-trump

16 to 18 points ( in no-trump bidding only high-card points   are counted) and 4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2, or 5-3-3-2 distribution with Q-x or better in any doubleton.

Two no-trump

22 to 24 points and all suits stopped (J-x-x-x; Q-x-x; K-x; or better

Three no-trump

25 to 27 points and all suits stopped.

Choice of suits

Generally speaking, bid your longest suit first.

            With two five-card suits bid the higher–ranking first.  With two or more four-card suits, bid the suit immediately lower in rank to your short suit (doubleton, singleton, or void).
            General principles.  Any bid of a new suit by the responding hand is forcing on the opening bidder for one round.  Thus, each time the responder bids a new suit, the opener must bid again.  If responder should jump, his bid is forcing to game.
            With less than 10 points, responder should prefer to raise partner has opened in a major suit, and to bid a new suit himself at the one level in poker preference to raising a minor-suit opening  bid.  With 11 or 12  points, responder can make two bids but should not force game.  With 13 points or more he should see that bidding is not dropped before a game contract is reached.  With 19 points he should make a strong effort to reach a slam.
            Response to  Suit Bids of One Raise.  To raise partner’s suit responder must have adequate trump support.  This consists of J-x-x, Q-x-x, x-x-x-x, or better for a non-rebid suit; and Q-x, K-x, a-x, or x-x-x for a rebid suit.
            Raise partner’s suit to two with 7 to 10 points and adequate trump support.  Raise to four trumps.  Raise four with no more than nine high-card points plus at least five trumps and a short suit  (singleton or void).
            Bid a New Suit.  At one level requires 6 points or more.  This response may be made on anything ranging from a weak hand, where responder is just trying to keep the bidding open, to a very powerful one, when he is not sure where the hand should be played.  At two level requires 10 points or more.  Jump in a new suit requires 19 points or more.  (The jump shift is reserved for hands where a slam is very likely.  Responder hold either a strong suit or strong support for opener’s suit.
            No-Trump Responses (made on balanced hands).  One no-trump requires 6 to 9 points in high cards.  (This bid is often made in an unbalanced hand if responder’s suit is lower in rank than the opening bidder’s and responder lacks the 10 points   required to take the bidding into the two level.)
            Two no-trump requires 13 to 15 points in high cards, all unbid suits stopped, and a balanced hand.
            Three no-trump requires 16 to 18 points in high cards, all unbid suits stopped, and 4-3-3-3 distribution.
            Responses to  Suit Bids of Two.   An opening bid of two in a suit  is unconditionally forcing to game and responder may not pass until game is reached.  With 6 points or less he bids two no-trump  regardless of his distributions.  With 7 points   and one quick trick, he may show a new suit or raise the opener’s suit.  With eight or nine high-card points and a balanced hand, responder bids three no-trump.
            Responses to Preemptive Bids.  Since the opener has overbid his hand by two or three tricks, aces, kings, and potential ruffling (trumping) values are the key factors to be considered when responder is contemplating a raise.  One or two trumps constitute sufficient support.
            Responses to a One no-trump Bid.  Balanced Hands.  Raise to two-no-trump with 8 or 9 points, or with 7 points and a good five-card suit. Raise to three no-trump with 10 to 14 points.  Raise to four no-trump with 15 or 16 points.  Raise to six no-trump with 17 or 18 points.  Raise to seven no-trump with 21  points.
            Unbalanced Hands.  With less than 8 points   plus a five-card suit, bid two diamonds, two hearts, or two spades.  (Do not bid two clubs on a five-card club suit.)  With 8 points or more and a four-card major suit, bid two clubs.  (This is an artificial bid asking opener to show a four-card major if he has one.  See section on rebids by opening one no-trump bidder.)  With 10 points and a good suit, bid three of that suit.  With a six–card major suit and less than 10 points   in high  cards, jump to game in the suit.
            Unbalanced Hands.   With a five-card  major  suit headed by an honor plus 4 points, bid the suit at the three level.  Show any six-card major suit.
            Responses to a Three No-trump Opening.  Show any five-card suit if the hand contains 5 points in high cards.  raise to four no-trump  with 7 points.  Raise to six no-trump with 8 or 9 points.  Raise to seven no-trump with 12 points.


Rebids by Opening Bidder.  The opener’s rebid is frequently the most important call of the auction, as he now has the opportunity to reveal the exact strength of his opening bid and therefore whether game or slam is in contemplation.  His opening is valued according to the following:
13 to 16 points                         Minimum hand
16 to 19 points                         Good hand
19 to 21 points                         very good hand

13 to 16 points.  Minimum hand.  If partner has made a limit response  (one no-trump or a single raise), opener should pass, as game is impossible.  If partner bids a new suit at the one level, opener may make a single raise with good trump support, rebid one no-trump with a balanced hand, or, with an unbalanced hand, rebid his own suit or a new suit (if he does not go past the level of two in the suit of his original bid).
            16 to 19 points.  Good hand.  If partner has made a limit response (one no-trump or a single raise), opener should bid again, as game is possible if responder has maximum values.  If responder has bid a new suit, opener may make a jump raise with four trumps, or jump in his own suit if he has a six-card suit, or bid a new suit.
            19 to 21 points.  Very good hand.  If partner has made a limit response (One no-trump or a single raise), opener may jump to game in either denomination, according to his distribution.  If responder has bid a new suit, opener may make a jump raise to game with four trumps, or jump to poker game in his own suit  if it is solid.  With a balanced hand and 19 or 20 points, opener should jump to two no-trump.  With 21 points he should jump to three no-trump.  With 22 points and up he should jump in a new suit (forcing to game and suggesting a slam).
            Rebids by Opening No-trump Bidder.  Two club Convention.  When the responder bids two clubs, the opening bidder must show a four–card biddable major suit if he has one: with four spades, he bids two spades; with four hearts, he bids two hearts; with four cards in each major suit, he bids two diamonds.
            Opening no-trump bidder must pass:   When responder raises to two no-trump and opener has a minimum (16 points); when responder bids two diamonds, two hearts, or two spades, and opener has only 16 or 17 points and no good fit for responder’s suit when responder bids three no-trump, four spades, or four hearts.

Defensive Bidding

            Overcalls. An overall is a defensive bid (made after the other side has opened the bidding).  Prospects for game are not as good as they are for the opening bidder, in view  of the announced adverse strength, and safety becomes a prime consideration.  Overcalls are therefore based not on a specified number of points but rather on a good suit.  Generally speaking the overcalled should employ the same standards   as a preemptor; he should be able to win in his own hand  within two tricks of his bid if vulnerable and within three tricks if not vulnerable.
            One No-trump Overcall.  An overcall of one no-trump is similar to a one no-trump opening bid and shows 16 to 18 points with a balanced hand and the opening bidder’s   suit well stopped.
            Jump Overcall.  Any jump overcall, whether it is a single, double, or triple jump, is preemptive in nature and shows a hand weak in high cards but with a good suit that will produce within three tricks of the bid if not vulnerable and within two tricks if vulnerable.
            Takeout  Doubles (also called  negative or informatory doubles).  When  a defender doubles and all the following conditions are present: (a) his partner has made no bid; (b) the double was made at the doubler’s first opportunity (c) the double is of one, two or three of a suit it is intended for a takeout and asks partner to bid his best (longest) suit.  This defensive bid is employed on either of two types of hand: (1) a hand of opening bid  strength where the double has no good or long suit of his own but has good support for any of the unbid suits; and (2) where the doublers has a good suit and so much high-card  strength that he fears a mere overcall might be passed out and a possible game missed.
            Overcall in Opponent’s Suit (cue bid).  The immediate cue bid (example: opponent opens one heart; defender bids two hearts) is the strongest of all defensive bids.  It is unconditionally forcing to game and shows approximately the equivalent of an opening forcing bid.  It normally announces first-round control of the opening bid suit and is usually based on a void with fine support in all unbid suits.
            Action by Partner of Overcaller.  The overcaller’s bid is based on a good suit; therefore less than normal trump support is required to raise  (Q-x or x-x-x).  A raise should be preferred by the partner to bidding a suit of his own, particularly if the overcaller has bid a major.  The partner of the overcaller should not bid for the sole purpose of keeping the bidding open.  A single raise of a one no-trump response should be made only in an effort to reach game.  If appropriate values   are held, a leap to game is in order, since a jump raise is not forcing.
            Action by Partner of Takeout Doublers.  In this situation, the weaker the hand the more important it is to bid.  The only holding that would  justify a pass would be one that contained four defensive tricks, three in the trump suit.  The response should be made in the longest suit, though preference is normally given to a major over a minor.
            The doubler’s partner should value his hand as follows: 6 points,  fair hand; 9 points, good hand; 11 points, probable game.  Doubler’s partner should indicate a probable game by jumping in his best suit, even if it is only four cards in length.  Since the partner of a doublers may be responding  on nothing, it is a good policy for the doublers subsequently to underbid, while doubler’s partner should overbid.
            Action by Partner of the Opening Bidder (when the opening bid has been overcalled or doubled).  When the opener’s bid has been overcalled, the responder is no longer under obligation to keep the bidding open; so a bid of one no-trump or a raise should be based on a hand  of at least average strength.  Over a takeout double, the responder has only one way to show a good poker hand a redouble.  This bid does not promise support for opener’s suit but merely announces a better than average holding.  Any other bid, while not indicative of weakness, shows only mediocre high-card strength.

Slam Bidding.  When the two partners have been able to determine that they have the assets for a slam (33 points between the combined hands plus an adequate trump suit), the only thing that remains is to make certain that the opponents are unable to cash two quick tricks. Various control asking and control showing bids have been employed through the years, but only three have stood the test of time- Blackwood, Gerber, and cue bids (individual ace showing).
            Blackwood convention (Invented by Easley Blackwood).  After a trump suit has been agreed upon, a bid of four no-trump asks partner to show his total number of aces.  A response of five clubs shows either no aces or all four aces; five diamonds shows one ace; five hearts shows two aces; five spades shows three aces.  After aces have been shown, the four no-trump bidder may ask for kings by now bidding five no-trump.  The responder to the five no-trump bid now shows kings: by bidding six clubs if he has no king, six diamonds if he has one king, etc., but six no-trump if he has all four kings.
Gerber Convention  (Invented by John Gerber). This convention is similar to Black- wood in that it asks for the number of aces. Its advantage lies in the fact that it initiates the response at a lower level. A sudden bid of four clubs where it could not possibly have a natural meaning (example: opener, one no- trump; responder, four clubs) is Gerber and asks partner to show the number of his aces. If he bids four diamonds, he shows no aces four hearts, one ace, etc. If the asking hand desires information about kings he bids the next-higher suit over his partner’s ace- showing response. Thus, if the responding hand has bid four hearts over four clubs to show one ace, a bid of four poker group spades would now ask him for kings and he would now reply four no-trump to show no king, five clubs to show one king, etc.
Cue bidding (individual ace showing). The Blackwood and Gerber conventions are de- signed to cover only a small number of potential slam hands. Many slams depend on possession of a specific ace, rather than a wholesale number of aces. Cue bids are employed in such cases. Example: Opener bids two spades, responder bids three spades, opener now bids four clubs the four-club bid shows the ace of clubs and invites responder to show an ace if he has one. The responder “signs off” by bidding the agreed trump suit.

Other Contract Bridge Conventions

Club Convention.  This method of bidding was devised by Harold S. Vanderbilt, who invented the modern game of Contract Bridge, and for that reason it is often called “the Vanderbilt Club.”  It is very popular in Europe. An opening bid of one club is artificial-it does not necessarily show a club suit but it shows a strong hand with 3 1/2 or more quick tricks. The opener’s partner must respond one diamond if he has less than two quick tricks. Any other response shows at least two ,quick tricks. After the opening bid and response the partners show their suits naturally.
Two-Club Convention. This convention, used by many expert players, is usually combined with “weak two-bids.” An opening bid of two clubs is artificial, not necessarily showing a club suit but showing a very powerful hand. It is forcing to game. The opener’s partner must respond two diamonds if he has a weak hand.  Any other  response shows strength, usually at least 1 ½ quick tricks.  An opening bid of two diamonds, two  hearts, or two spades is a preemptive bid, made on a fairly weak hand that includes a good five – or six-card suit but does not have 13 or more points.  After a two-club opening bid, the opener will show his powerful suit
Defender’s Play.  In leading against a contract, a defender should consider carefully which card to play .  The fate of the contract cogency in the technique of choosing the proper lead comes only with experience, but below are some suggestions that are helpful as generalizations.



Pinochle many Variations

Pinochle many Variations
Two-Handed Pinochle
Two-Handed Doubling Redoubling
Auction pinochle
Strategy at Auction
CAD found
Partnership Auction
Auction pinochle without wido Individual play
Partnership Aeroplane Pinochle
Radio Partnership Pinochle

Other Members of the Bezique Family

The Bezique Family
Rubicon bezique
Two-handed sixty-six
Two-handed piquet
Boo-Ray or BOURÉ

The Big Euchre Family

The big euchre family
Strategy of euchre
Auction euchre
Table of scoring points
Spoil five
Double hasenpfeffer
Three-card loo

The Heart Group

Heart Group
Spot Hearts
Black Widow Hearts

The All-Fours Group

All-Fours Group
Shasta Sam
Auction Pitch Joker

Banking Card Games

Banking Card Games
Black Jack, casino Style
Black Jack Strategy
CHEMIN DE PER must play
Baccarat Banque
Faro or farobank
Banker and broker
Red Dogs

Card craps

The Stops Games

Stops Game

Skarney® and How It Is Played

Skarney® and How It Is Played
Alternate Skarney
Skarney Singles
Skarney Gin Doubles

Cheating at Card Games

Cheating at Card Games
Professional Card Cheats
Nullifying the Cut
The Peek
How to Shuffle Cards

Dice and their Many Games

Dice and their Many Games
The Casino Game: Bank Craps
English Hazard
Double Cameroon
Partnership Straight scarney Dice
Scarney Duplicate Jackpots
Scarney Chemin de Fer
Applying All Card Games Poker

Games Requiring Special Equipment

Hasami Shogi
Follow The Arrow

Lottery and Guessing Games

Lottery guessing game
Tossing Game
Race Horse Keno
The match Game

Glossary of Game Terms


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